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Captain Rawes

Last Updated:2022/8/8 14:55:35 By:wangzhonglang

Type Image

Chosen by Oliveira



Year Published/Registered1830

Cultivar Type:For Ornamental

AGM Type

Scientific Name:Camellia reticulata 'Captain Rawes'

Chinese Name:归霞

Japanese Name



Camellia Reticulata  Burdin Maggiore & Co. Catalogue, 1845. Synonym for Captain Rawes.

Captain Rawes Reticulata  Magnolia Gardens and Nursery Catalogue, 1952-1953. Orthographic variant for Captain Rawes.

Captain Rawes' Camellia  Booth, 1830, Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. Ortho­graphic variant for Captain Rawes.

Captain Rowe's Camellia  Fendig, 1953, American Camellia Catalogue Index. Orthographic error for Captain Rawes.

Chinese Peony-Flowered  The Garden, vol.71, 1906, p.215. Synonym for the C.reticulata, Captain Rawes.

13 show +


» English Description

Sweet, 1830, Hortus Britannicus as Captain Rawes; Booth, 1830, Trans­actions of the Horticultural Society of London, 7:519-562 as ‘Captain Rawes’ Camellia’. A very large semi-double to incomplete double flower, 14-17cm across. Bright rose madder, lighter towards the centre. Petals about 15 in two rows, waved and undulated. Anthers, first bright yellow, darkening with age. Leaves, dull green above, light, glossy green below, distinctive veining, broad-elliptic, 8.5-9.5 cm long by 3.5-6 cm wide, blunt apex, finely and sharply serrate. Open growth habit, forming a small tree up to 10 meters in height. The first introduction of C.reticulata was made by the East Indiaman skipper, Captain Rawes, in 1820, who brought back from China an unnamed camellia, which he gave to Thomas Carey Palmer of Kent, England, where it flowered in 1826. In 1824 a further import was made by John Dampier Parks which flowered in 1827 and a description and illustration was published in the Botanical Register (t.1078), 1827 by John Lindley who gave it the botanical rank of C.reticulata. In the same year an illustration of Captain Rawes’ plant was published in the Botanical Magazine, (t.2784) but exhibited differ­ences to the plate of Park’s plant. As pointed out by Robert Sealy in a letter to Kew 26/2/63, the illustration of the plant imported by Parks has a well developed gynoecium while that of Rawes’ importation does not. It would thus appear that a fertile and an infertile form may have been introduced. This would seem to be borne out by the fact that the camellia generally known as ‘Captain Rawes’ has proved to be a most infertile triploid. On the other hand there have been reports from time to time of seedlings from what is nominally this camellia. The first name given, that of Camellia reticulata, is regarded as a species name and not applicable as a cultivar name. Other names applied, such as ‘Semi-duplex’ and ‘Semi-plena’ are invalid as ‘Semi­-duplex’ was used for a C.japonica in 1810 and ‘Semi-plena’ also in 1822. The name ‘Captain Rawes’ Camellia’ was also applied to the C.japonica cultivar Rawesiana, making it invalid for the C.reticulata. Earlier reports than 1830 of names in Japanese literature, have been ‘Tō-tsub­aki’ and ‘Kara-tsubaki’, These translate as “Chinese Camellia” and appear to refer to C.reticulata as a group, rather than a cultivar. No Chinese name has been located in that country for the cultivar and it has recently been re-introduced to the land of its origin where it has been given the synoym ‘Guixia’ or ‘Returning Cloud’. Jane Taylor in The Milder Garden 1990, p.206 erroneously states: “introduced (by Robert Fortune) in 1820”. The plant introduced by Robert Fortune is ‘Pagoda’ (Songzelin). Further synonym: ‘Chinese Peony-Flowered’. Orthographic error: ‘Captain Rowes’. For colour illustations see Urquhart, 1960, The Camellia, pl.XXI; and Macoboy, 1981, The Colour Dictionary of Camellias, p.152; American Camellia Yearbook, 1947, p.119 and 1975, p.149. Received RHS, F.C.C., 1963. Originated in China.

» Chinese Description

冯国楣、夏丽芳、朱象鸿,1981.《云南山茶花》,图片p.42,文字描述p.118。归 霞(Guixia) Captain Rawes.【叶】长卵圆形,长6.5-11厘米,宽3-5厘米,先 端渐尖,塞部楔形至宽楔形,叶面粗糙,叶脉明显。【花】桃红色(R.H.S.C.C.58C),直径12-13厘米。花 瓣17-19片,卷曲。雄蕊多数,围成一圈。雌蕊发育良 好。花期1月中旬至2月中旬。本品种系十七世纪后叶,从云南直接引种到日本的 一个半重瓣型的云南山茶花品种(TO-TSUBAKI),经 日本朋友池田金八先生的努力,于1973年由日本寄来枝 条,途经40天运到昆明,嫁接成活一株,并于第二年开 出友谊的花朵。该品种在300年后又回到了云南,现定名 为“归霞”。

管开云、李纪元、王仲朗. 2014.《中国茶花图鉴》p. 258。原产地:中国云南省。性状描述:花桃红色,松散牡丹型,大型花,花径12~13cm,花瓣17~19枚,宽卵圆形,3~4轮排列,外轮花瓣波状,内轮曲折,雄蕊多,分数束夹生于曲折的花瓣中,雌蕊发育不良,难以结实,多数被证实是三倍体。叶片绿色,长卵圆形,长6.5~11cm,宽3~5cm,先端渐尖,基部楔形至宽楔形,叶面粗糙,叶脉明显;植株开展,生长中等。花期:1月上旬至2月中旬。识别点:该品种花色桃红,外轮花瓣波状,内轮曲折,叶长卵圆形,叶面粗糙,叶脉明显。

朱國棟、蔡燦玉,2011. 《台灣茶花族譜》,p.49。Captain Rawes     罗威士船长 C. reticulata) 云南茶。1830,英国。半重瓣、蝶翅形、浓桃色、巨大(1417cm)、花瓣约1719枚、23重轮列、筒状蕊、花期12月、果实期10月。同种异名:ReturningCloud(归霞)、归霞(Guixia)。此品种于17世纪末出现于中国,花名不详;1820年东印度公司Richard Rawes船长,在中国广东的一家苗圃获得此品种,带回英国之后,交给英格兰Kent市的Thomas Carey Palmer ; 1826年此品种首次于欧洲开花,1827年以’Captain Rawes'之种名公诸于世。

» Japanese Description

中国科学院昆明植物研究所 1981 「雲南のツバキ」p. 91. 【葉狭卵形。長さ6.5〜llcm,幅3〜5cm。先端は銳先形で,基部はくさび形か広いくさび形。 表面はあらく,ざらつく。葉脈は顕著。葉身は 主脈にそってわずかに内側に折れる。鋸歯は密 にっき,浅い。【花】形は蝶翅形。花色は紫桃色(R.H.S.C.C. 58C)。花径は12〜13cm。花弁は17〜19枚あり,3〜4重の輪状に配列する。外方の弁は平たく, 内方の弁は外側に折れ,上半分が波曲する。雄 ずいは多い。輪状につき,基部+以下は癒合して筒状になる。雌ずいは発育が正常。結実する。 花期は1月中旬〜2月中旬。果実期は9〜10月。【参考】この品種は,17世紀後半に,雲南省か ら日本に直接導入された半八重型の雲南山茶花 の品種(日本ではトウツバキという)である。日 本の池田金八先生の努力により,1973年に,40 日間もかけて,枝が昆明に運ばれ,さし木され た。その1株がその翌年に友好の花を咲かせた。約 300年たつで再び雲南省にもどってきたことに なり,現在は「帰霞」と名づけられている。


Flower Size14-17 cm

Blooming Season1-2 Month China