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Apoliu Declaration and its Chinese translation (阿婆六宣言)

21 December 2021   686

This very important paper was firstly published in the International Camellia Journal 2020(52):26-30. and was kindly translated into Chinese by Dr. Xu Lin and reviewed by Prof. Guan Kaiyun.  Please scroll down for Chinese.

这篇重要的“阿婆六宣言”一文首次刊登在《国际山茶会志》2020年52期第26-30页。由武汉的许林博士翻译成中文,并经管开云研究员审校。请翻到英文末尾查阅中文翻译。

‘The Apoliu Declaration’: An International Declaration by the International Camellia Society (ICS) for Conservation of Ancient and Historic Camellia Trees

Dr. Stephen Utick

 What is it and why is it significant?

A major global initiative by the International Camellia Society (ICS), adopted just prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, represents an important step forward in the conservation of significant historic ornamental camellia trees around the world. This initiative, known as the Apoliu Declaration, is a world-first as an International Statement that encourages the Conservation of Ancient Indigenous and Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees around the world. It sets criteria for Specification of Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees and Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees, Standard of Measurements and Records, and the institution of International Awards for Significant Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees and Significant Historic Ornamental Trees. The Declaration is named after the place of its inception, namely Apoliu Camellia Tourism Valley, located in a more isolated valley near Conghua in Guangdong Province where it was first formulated in October 2019. It was formally adopted by the ICS (with final adjustments) over the period between January and April 2020 by email ballot of the ICS Board and Directors.

The following outlines the text of the Declaration, and the various parts including:

PART 1: Key criteria of Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees (i.e. native tree growing in country of origin)

PART 2: Key criteria of Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees, and

PART 3: Institution of ICS Global Awards for

i.           Significant Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees

ii.         Including Individual, Community or Collection of Camellia Trees

iii.       Significant Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees iv. Including Individual, Community or Collection.

Text of ‘The Apoliu Declaration’

The International Camellia Society (ICS) commends to the global community, particularly those nations where plants of the genus Camellia are grown, including their national parks reserves and estates, botanical gardens, horticultural and agricultural societies, heritage and cultural associations, the conservation of ancient and historic trees of the family Theaceae, genus Camellia. Such trees represent an irreplaceable botanical and genetic repository that has been nurtured through millennia of human civilisation, particularly in Asia and later including India and Sri Lanka, global economic horticultural usage including tea, edible oils, cosmetics, native woods, nursery stock and floriculture.

The ICS also urges the conservation of these trees, particularly in their homelands of China, Japan, Vietnam, Korea, Laos, Cambodia and other Asian nations, the aesthetic beauty of which has inspired garden design, the arts (including painting, poetry, literature and ceramics) and religious practice throughout two millennia. Recognising that Camellia has since the seventeenth century become a global flower, the ICS further urges the conservation of ancient and historic Camellia trees (both indigenous and ornamental) throughout the world, including the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, and most European countries, particularly Portugal, Belgium, Italy, France and Spain. Such trees are international living sentinels within garden and other landscapes, marking the passage of hundreds of years of human horticultural endeavour and garden history. In summary, the ICS urges the world community to conserve these wonderful ancient and historic Camellia trees, priceless and irreplaceable symbols of economic, horticultural and cultural endeavours through millennia of human civilisations.

 PART 1: Key criteria of Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees (i.e. native tree growing in country of origin)

1 Specification of Individual Indigenous Ancient Camellia Tree.

Coverage of ancient indigenous camellia tree (either in situ or ex situ). • Age Criteria: >100 years old. • Level: Level 1: >500 years old. Level 2: 300-499 years old. Level 3: 100-299 years old. • Specimen needs to be identified to species level for indigenous tree.

2 Specification of Community or Collection of Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees.

Coverage of community, copse, forest or plantation of ancient indigenous camellia Trees (either in situ or ex situ).

l  Level 1: including at least 5 individual trees more than 500 years old.

l  Level 2: including at least 20 individual trees over 300 years old.

l  Level 3: including at least 100 individual trees over 100 years old.

l  Level 4: including at least 30 individual trees over 100 years old.

l  Level 5: including at least 10 individual trees over 100 years old.

Specimens need to be identified to species level for ancient indigenous trees.

3 Standards of Measurement and Records

l  Taxonomy: Species or cultivar name

l  Place: where it is located, longitude and latitude, surrounding such as soils, water, light

l  Ownership

l  Estimates of Age: Documented with photos, pictures, bibliographic citation, forestry reports and ecological studies or other reliable documents to justify the age estimate

l  Size Measurements (other than trunk): Height, Record of Canopy and Crown Width Density

l  Trunk Measurements: Circumference (not diameter) of trunk(s) 1.3 metres above ground level for a single trunk tree or, for multiple trunk trees, ground level circumference (not diameter) of all the largest lateral branches.

l  Internal Testing of Branch and Trunk Structure

l  Growth Vigour: including for trunk, leaf and flower

l  Phytosanitary Report

l  Interest: natural, scientific, educational, monumental, ornamental and aesthetic values

l  Historic significance (supported by documentation)

l  Record of any literary and cultural impact e.g. depiction in books, poems, cinema or other media, or referenced by some famous writer, novelist or poet.

The above standards of measurement and other records should be compiled and should support the estimated age of the Camellia tree specimen(s). At the same time, this Declaration recognises the significant differences in growth characteristics exhibited by Camellia trees across the world, and takes into account the local environmental and ecological context that the Camellia trees grow within.

PART 2: Key criteria of Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees

Note: These trees may or may not be growing in the country where the cultivar originated. This Declaration also recognises that in many locations across Asia, there will be indigenous ancient Camellia trees where it is unclear whether it is a native forest remnant or has been cultivated or cared for by local communities. In such circumstances, the owner(s) have the choice of determining whether or not they regard it as either an indigenous ancient tree or a historic ornamental one. These criteria also cover historic potted specimens including bonsai or penjing.

 1 Specification of Individual Historic Ornamental Camellia Tree

Must be clearly identified to species or cultivar level and meet at least TWO of the criteria as listed below:

l  be >100 years old of a unique and/ or original specimen of a cultivar and species, or of lesser age* when taking into account the exceptional age of the plant;

l  historicity must wherever possible be supported by documentation;

l  represent a special planting marking a historic event or planted by a special person;

l  be the original mother plant of a significant horticultural Camellia cultivar;

l  represent an important complement within an historic collection including those of nurseries;

l  be of special religious or cultural significance within the context of a temple, shrine, religious site, memorial (including cemeteries) and monuments; or

l  has had literary and cultural impact e.g. depiction in books, poems or cinema or other media, or referenced by some famous writer, novelist or poet.

*This takes into account those horticultural cultivars and specimens with a shorter natural life span than 100 years.

2 Specification of Collection of Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees (< 50 specimens)

Each specimen within the collection must be listed and meet the criteria for an individual Historic Ornamental Camellia Tree. Located within or across:

l  a temple, shrine, religious sites, historic sites and monuments;

l  within a historic estate; or

l  separate locations across a distinct province or local government jurisdiction within an individual country.

Standards of Measurement and Records

As specified for Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees. 

PART 3: Institution of ICS Global Awards for

iii. Significant Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees - Including Individual, Community or Collection of Camellia Trees iv. Significant Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees - Including Individual, Community or Collection. It is recommended that like ICS Camellia Garden of Excellence award, that the ICS instigate the above awards marking the significance to the global community of Ancient and Historic Camellia Trees, as an instrument to promote their global conservation.

Award Criteria:

i. Significant Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees - Including Individual, Community or Collection of Camellia Trees

①.      Must meet specification for Ancient Indigenous Camellia Trees

②.      Age has been supported by Standards of Measurement and Records, with as much data as can reasonably be collected

③.      Comprehensive report provided on Standards of Measurement and Records

④.      Quality photographs submitted of tree, foliage and flower (and desirably seed).

⑤.      Details of Conservation Plan in Place

ii. Significant Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees - Including Individual, Community or Collection

①.      Must meet specification for Historic Ornamental Camellia Trees

②.      Age has been supported by Standards of Measurement and Records

③.      Comprehensive report provided on Standards of Measurement and Records, with as much data as can reasonably be collected.

④.      Quality photographs submitted of tree, foliage and flower (and desirably seed).

⑤.      Details of Conservation Plan in Place 6. Promotional Strategy to relevant Horticultural and Heritage Associations.

Award Processes:

①.      Applications including accompanying documentation, photographs and any application proforma are to be submitted first by mail or email to a relevant ICS Director representing the region or country of the applicant. If that Director is satisfied and ratifies the application, then the Director forwards the full application to the Chair ICS Committee for Historic Committee Conservation, or other designated Committee members as listed on the ICS website.

②.      The Chair ICS Committee for Historic Camellia Conservation brings forward any recommendations so received to that Committee for consideration, in order of receipt.

③.      Awards are not automatic but subject to assessment by the Committee.

④.      The Chair ICS Committee for Historic Camellia Conservation may request an in situ inspection by a Committee member, should there be a major discrepancy or significant incompleteness in the application. Such costs of inspection would be borne by the applicant.

⑤.      If the award is recommended by that Committee, an award certificate listing the attributes of the ancient or historic camellia tree(s) will signed jointly by both ICS President and the Chair of ICS Committee for Historic Camellia Conservation, and the relevant regional ICS Vice President and Directors informed.

⑥.      In order to make the award processes manageable for the ICS Committee for Historic Camellia Conservation in the early years, a maximum of 20 applications will be considered in any calendar year, with an annual limit of up to 10 applications from any one country or region. This will be reviewed by the Committee after two years of the Award process operation, with the objective of making the process more flexible.

⑦.      The ICS will keep a Register of successful Ancient and Historical Camellia Trees Awards recorded by way of an online database. Awards will be given Registration Numbers for example: CN00001-00001-I(or C)-20191016, corresponding to country reference e.g. (CN) and country number e.g. (0001) -international number e.g. (0001) – Indication whether Individual or Community or Collection e.g. I(or C)- and date of ratification, e.g. 20191016.

⑧.      A modest one-off fee to the ICS may be applicable for applications from privately owned trees or collections should such applications be successful. Any such fee set and method of payment will be set out on the ICS website.

⑨.      The Award stands until the death of the Ancient and Historic Camellia Tree.

⑩.     Those Ancient and Historic Camellia Tree Awards already designated by the Chair ICS Committee for Historic Conservation, prior to this Declaration coming into effect, will be recognised as the new awards without need for re-application.

阿婆六宣言

许林  管开云

为保护山茶古树名木,国际山茶协会(ICS)特发布此宣言。

国际山茶协会号召国际社会,特别是那些有山茶属植物生长的国家,包括其国家公园保护区和庄园、植物园、园艺和农业学会、遗产和文化协会等开展对山茶科山茶属古树名木开展保护。

山茶古树名木是全人类,特别是亚洲,也包括之后的印度和斯里兰卡,经过数千年的人类文明所培育获得的不可替代的植物学和遗传学资源。这些资源为全球提供了包括茶叶、食用油、化妆品、天然木材、绿化苗木和花卉生产等的经济和园林应用。

国际山茶协会紧急呼吁开展对山茶古树名木进行保护,特别是在山茶属植物原产地的中国、日本、越南、朝鲜、老挝、柬埔寨和其他一些亚洲国家更需要开展相关保护工作。在过去2000多年里,山茶之美为园林设计、艺术创造(包括绘画、诗歌、文学和陶瓷)以及宗教活动赋予了灵感。

鉴于茶花自十七世纪以来就已成为全球性观赏花卉,因此,国际山茶协会同时还紧急呼吁全世界,包括英国和海峡群岛、美国、澳大利亚、新西兰、南非、巴西和所有欧洲国家,特别是西班牙、葡萄牙、法国、意大利、比荷卢三国、德国、奥地利、瑞士和克罗地亚开展山茶古树名木(包含原生和栽培)开展保护。这些古树名木是国际庭园和其他各类风景区中活着的标志,它们展示着数百年来人类园艺事业的探索和庭园历史。

总而言之,国际山茶协会紧急呼吁全世界保护这些珍贵的和具有历史意义的山茶古树,这是千年人类文明中经济、园艺和文化成就的无价之宝和不可替代的象征。

1部分:原生山茶古树(即生长于原产地的古树)的主要标准

1原生单株山茶古树的界定

原生山茶古树的涵盖范围(就地或迁地古树)。

·树龄标准:> 100

·级别:

1级:> 500

2级:300-499

3级:100-299

·原生树种样本需要鉴定到“种”的分类级别。

2原生山茶古树群落或种植园的界定

原生山茶古树群落、灌木林、森林或种植园的涵盖范围(就地或迁地古树)。

  ·级别:

1级:至少包括5棵树龄超过500年的树木

2级:至少包括20棵树龄超过300年的树木

3级:至少包括100棵树龄超过100年的树木

4级:至少包括30棵树龄超过100年的树木

5级:至少包括10棵树龄超过100年的树木

·原生古树样本需要鉴定到“种”的分类级别。

3测量及记载标准

l  分类学:种或栽培品种的名称;

l  产地:产地所在位置的经度和纬度,周边环境如土壤、水、光线等;

l  所有权;

l  树龄估算:能够佐证合理估算树龄的照片、图片、文献引证、林业报告和生态研究或其他可靠的文件;

l  尺寸测量(除树干外):高度,树冠记录及冠幅密度;

l  树干尺寸:独干树距地面1.3米处的树干周长(非直径),或者多干树的所有最大侧枝的地平面周长(非直径);

l  枝干和树枝构造的内部测试;

l  长势:包括树干、叶子和花朵

l  植物检疫报告;

l  价值:自然、科学、教育、纪念性、观赏性和美学价值;

l  历史意义(用文件佐证);

l  任何文学和文化影响的记录,例如在书籍、诗歌、电影或其他媒体中描绘的,或由著名作家、小说家或诗人引用过。

上述测量标准和其他记录必须完整而且能够支撑其树龄估算。同时,考虑到世界各地山茶树所表现出的生长特性的显著差异,该宣言在甄别时对山茶树所生长的地理环境和生态背景也会加以考量。

2部分:观赏山茶名木的主要标准

       注释:这些名木可能生长在山茶原产国,也可能不在其原产国。本宣言还考虑到在亚洲的许多地方,尚有许多未知的原生山茶古树,目前尚不清楚这些古树是当地的森林遗留物还是由当地社区种植或养护的。在这种情况下,所有权者可以选择将其认定为原生古树或者观赏山茶名木。这些标准还包含了具有历史意义的盆栽植株或盆景等。

1单株观赏山茶名木的界定

必须明确鉴定到种或品种的分类级别,并且至少符合以下两条标准:

l  特有和(或)原生的栽培品种和种的树龄需大于100年,某些受特定年龄限制的植株树龄可小于100年(见注释*);

l  历史性的名木必须有相关文献佐证;

l  见证了重要的历史时刻,或由特殊人物种植;

l  具有重要意义的山茶园艺品种的原始母株;

l  具有历史意义的种植园和苗圃中的重要代表种类;

l  寺庙、神社、宗教场所、纪念馆(包括墓地)和古迹的环境中具有特殊宗教或文化意义的种类;

l  具有文学和文化影响,例如在书籍、诗歌、电影或其他媒体中有所描绘,或由一些著名作家、小说家或诗人所引用。

注释*:本规定考虑到某些园艺品种和单株样本的自然寿命要短于100年。

2观赏山茶名木种植园的界定(<50株古树)

必须列出所种植的每株植物,并符合单株观赏名木的标准。

位于以下地点内或范围内:·

l  寺庙、神社、宗教场所、历史遗迹和名胜古迹;

l  历史遗产地;

l  一个明确的省份之内或一个国家中的地方政府所管辖的范围中分散分布的种类;

树龄鉴定、测量及记录标准  参照原生古山茶树的界定标准。

3部分:国际山茶协会全球授牌准则

1 奖项

i)最佳原生山茶古树 -     包括单株,群落或种植园

ii)最佳观赏山茶名木 -   包括单株、群落或种植园。

参照国际山茶协会杰出茶花园授牌模式,启动上述授牌活动,以记录这些获得授牌的山茶古树和观赏山茶名木在促进全球山茶保育中具有的重要意义。

2 授牌认定标准

i)最佳原生山茶古树------包括单株,群落或种植园

①.    必须符合原种山茶古树的界定标准;

②.    树龄的鉴定按照测量和记录标准的数据作为佐证,尽可能提供更多合理的数据;

③.    提供符合计量和记录标准的综合报告;

④.    提交高质量的树木、叶子和花朵(如有种子更好)的照片;

⑤.    当地保育计划的细节。

ii)最佳观赏山茶名木 ------包括单株、群落或种植园

①.    必须符合观赏山茶名木的相关界定标准;

②.    树龄的鉴定有符合测量和记录标准的数据作为佐证,尽可能提供更多合理的数据;

③.    提交高质量的树木、叶子和花朵(如有种子更好)的照片;

④.    当地保育计划的细节;

⑤.    相关园艺和遗产协会的宣传策略。

3 授牌程序

①.    申请者准备申请表格、附上文件、照片等古树资料,通过邮寄或电子邮件的方式提交给申请者所在国家或地区的国际山茶协会理事;如果该申请得到了该理事的认可并获得批准,那么该理事则向古山茶保育委员会主任或其他在国际山茶协会网站上列出的古山茶保育委员会委员名单中指定的委员转交全部申请材料。

②.    古山茶保育委员会主任按照收到申报材料的顺序提出合理的建议,提交古山茶保育委员会考虑并审议;

③.    认证并非自动获得通过,而是取决于委员会的对申请报告的评估结果;

④.    对于存在较大分歧或严重缺失的申请材料,古山茶保育委员会主任可以要求委员会成员进行一次实地考察。相关考察费用由申请者承担;

⑤.    如果委员会建议授牌,列举了该山茶古树名木主要特点的奖牌证书将由国际山茶协会主席和古山茶保育委员会主任共同签署,并通知所属区域的副主席和理事;

⑥.    为了便于古山茶保育委员会的初期管理,每年受理申请的上限为20个,每个国家或地区一年的受理申请的上限为10个。执行2年后,由古山茶保育委员会根据实际运行情况再灵活调整;

⑦.    国际山茶协会将通过在线数据库登记获得认定的山茶古树及名木。授牌将编号和登记。编号示例及说明如下:CN00001-00001-I(或C-20191016,表示“国家/地区代码”“该国内授牌古树编号”“国际编号”“单株(或群落、种植园)”“批准日期”。

⑧.    对于所有权为私有者或山茶收集园的申请者,在申请获得通过后,将一次性收取适度申请费用。关于费用收取金额和支付方法将在国际山茶协会网站上公布。

⑨.    奖项的有效期持续至该山茶古树名木死亡为止。

⑩.    在本宣言生效前已经获得由国际山茶协会古山茶保育委员会主任认定的山茶古树名木奖项,将会按照本宣言中的奖项设置获得认定,无需重新申请。